The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis (Part One)

April 11, 2014

DobieTitle

Rescued from obscurity last year with an essential complete-series DVD release, The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis remains one of the most distinctive and intelligent American situation comedies.  Conceived and successfully marketed as a youth-oriented enterprise – the everyday life of the ordinary teenager – Dobie expanded its vision, as all great television does, to articulate an overarching point of view on existence itself – a wry, wise one, with a strong undercurrent of melancholy.  Verbally witty and tonally unpredictable, it was probably the most sophisticated sitcom to debut before The Dick Van Dyke Show – although its sharp edges and complicated relationship with realism (and reality) make Dobie Gillis more relevant as a precursor to the spirited insanity of Green Acres.

Dobie Gillis was one of the earliest television comedies to embody the unmistakable voice of a single, brilliant writer – from the fifties, only Nat Hiken’s The Phil Silvers Show and arguably David Swift’s Mister Peepers come to mind as fellow members of that fraternity.  Though he had successes on Broadway (The Tender Trap) and in films (adaptations of The Affairs of Dobie Gillis in 1953, with Bobby Van in the title role, and his novel Rally Round the Flag, Boys! in 1958), Max Shulman began as a prose writer who took on college life in his first book (Barefoot Boy With Cheek, 1943) and introduced the character of Dobie in a series of short stories.  Although the unity of tone in The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis is self-evident, Shulman asserted his control over the television series in no uncertain terms: “In Dobie Gillis, every script in the end went through my typewriter, sometimes for minor changes, sometimes for major ones.  Out of 39 or so episodes, I’d write maybe 10 – anywhere from 6 to 12 – but I would polish or tinker with every one of them, because I wanted to keep the same tone.”

A TV pilot script for Dobie had been around for a couple of years before it coalesced at Twentieth Century-Fox in 1958, when Martin Manulis (the legendary Playhouse 90 producer) became the studio’s new head of television production and revived it from the dead.  Although Manulis quit after less than a year in the job, before the series debuted, his production company’s logo appeared at the end of Dobie Gillis for all of its one hundred and forty-seven episodes.  The Dobie series was also an early agency package, from General Artists Corporation (GAC), the forerunner of ICM.  A “package” was a situation where the key talents, usually all clients of the agency in question, were assembled by the agency and presented as a bundle to the buyer.  It was probably GAC that put Shulman together with his key collaborator, producer-director Rod Amateau.

Shulman and Amateau would be the brains behind Dobie Gillis for its entire four-year run.  “We were just two little schnooks trying to put a comedy show together,” said Shulman (and it was literally true, in part; neither man stood taller than 5’5”).  After clashes with studio executives over the pilot, Shulman contrived to move production to a smaller annex lot, Fox Western (which was actually east of the main Fox studios, but named after its location at Sunset and Western), where they would be left alone.  Shot quickly, with two cameras and no audience, on a cluster of sets that were cramped and threadbare but got the idea across, Dobie Gillis was a quasi-independent production nestled under a big studio banner.

In print, Dobie Gillis was a college kid; university life seemed to be Shulman’s creative starting point in the same way that service in the war formed the points of view of many other writers of his generation.  Television lowered his age and transplanted Dobie (played on television by Dwayne Hickman, previously a supporting player on The Bob Cummings Show and the Shulman-scripted Rally Round the Flag, Boys!) to high school, because Manulis felt that his escapades were too silly to seem plausible otherwise.  In a way that anticipates, oddly, the workplace comedy formula of Dick Van Dyke and many of its successors, Shulman divided his attention evenly between Dobie’s “professional” life at school and his family life at home.  Dobie’s parents (Frank Faylen and Florida Friebus) were the proprietors of a rather threadbare little grocery store; his older brother, Davey (played, in a gimmick of casting, by the actor’s older brother Darryl Hickman), was already away at college, leaving Dobie for narrative purposes an only child.

The rest of the ensemble comprised friends and teachers from Dobie’s “work” sphere, Central High School (and later S. Peter Pryor College).  Dobie’s best friend, for instance, was a beatnik, allegedly the first to figure prominently on television.  Maynard G. Krebs – played by Bob Denver, a casting director’s secretary’s brother, whose inexperience lent him a innocent quality that Shulman and Amateau found lacking in the other applicants – was a bedraggled loafer with a hint of a goatee and a wardrobe consisting entirely of torn sweatshirts.  Maynard was such a topical notion that he could not have existed in the days when Shulman first started writing about Dobie.  More than any other character, as both Shulman and Denver would later recall, Maynard was an ongoing invention of the actor who played him.

DobieIntro

If everyone on The Twilight Zone sounded like Rod Serling, then all of Shulman’s characters tended to share the same loquacious, declamatory speech pattern – almost a proto-Sorkinese.  Collectively, the citizens of Central City had a more prodigious vocabulary than anyone else on television in the early sixties.  Some critics, as well as Hickman and others who worked on the show, have claimed that Shulman’s use of Dobie as a simultaneous participant and narrator in the series was ground-breaking.  Perhaps, but Dobie’s funny monologues – at first delivered, in a self-mocking gesture, next to the local park’s copy of Rodin’s The Thinker – don’t play as a jarring, fourth-wall breaking device, in the manner of Kevin Spacey turning away from a scene and towards the viewer in House of Cards.  Rather, they strike me as a natural (if unusually fluid) extension of the importance of speech and wordplay in Shulman’s writing, and of a piece with the sort of on-screen hosting that Serling and Alfred Hitchcock provided for their own shows – more about establishing a particular tone than to delivering exposition.  A closer modern analogue for Dobie’s monologues might be the interpolation of the stars’ stand-up routines into episodes of Seinfeld or Louie.

Although catchphrase humor isn’t usually thought of as a sophisticated sitcom device, Shulman infused Dobie Gillis with a roster of intricate litanies, the best of which became calling cards for the characters who delivered them as well as pleasurable running gags.  Dobie and Maynard sit on a park bench, volleying back and forth “What do you want to do tonight,” in tribute to Marty.  Thalia Menninger (Tuesday Weld), Dobie’s earliest, just-out-of-reach inamorata, calmly explains the rationale behind her monomaniacal gold-digging: “My father’s sixty years old and has a kidney condition, and my mother isn’t getting any younger either. I have a sister who’s married to a loafer, and a brother who shows every sign of turning into a public charge.”  Herbert T. Gillis recites his World War II service record, “with the good conduct medal,” the added emphasis underlining Dobie’s dad’s puffed-up view of himself.

Those catechisms are a key to understanding Shulman’s worldview, which is simultaneously cynical and warm.  Shulman protects his characters in very specific ways: Herbert may be a windbag, living too much in the past; but as he reminds us with every recitation, his exasperation with his son’s aimlessness is rooted in legitimate Greatest Generation accomplishment.  Herbert’s other major refrain was, in response to any infraction by Dobie, “I gotta kill that boy” – a line that, like Ralph Kramden’s “To the moon, Alice,” contains an undercurrent of abusiveness that couldn’t have gone unnoticed even to fifties audiences, especially as delivered by the raspy and irascible Faylen (essentially playing himself, according to Hickman).  Shulman liked to point out that “we didn’t even pretend that there was any communication between parents and children,” but the relationship was more complicated: Whenever someone else insulted Dobie, Herbert was quick to take offense.  He was far from warm and fuzzy, but Dobie was his burden to heap insult upon.

DobieHerbert

By the same token, Thalia’s lust for money has a rational grounding: Shulman gives her a sympathetic justification for craving coin even as he makes full use of it as a nightmarish, all-consuming spectre in Dobie’s life.  “Girls who tell the truth are funny,” Shulman said – a statement that can be taken in more than one way.  Like many of the television writers of his era, Shulman had a bit of a woman problem; and just as Stirling Silliphant used Route 66, in his own prescient/retrograde way, as a vehicle to work out a horror of and fascination for women’s lib, Dobie Gillis became a canvas for Shulman to sketch out contradictory female archetypes.  Thalia’s opposite number was Zelda Gilroy (Sheila James), initially a one-off character (alphabetical seating fated her to be Dobie’s chemistry partner, and one-sided soulmate, in the third episode, “Love Is a Science”), but one who evolved into the show’s female lead.  Shulman used Zelda to balance the equation of Dobie’s unsatisfying love life: As Thalia was unattainable for Dobie, so Dobie was unattainable for the lovestruck Zelda, to the endless exasperation of all concerned.

Although physical appearance is implicitly the reason that Dobie pursues every girl in sight except Zelda, the show steers clear of overtly cruel jokes at her expense (especially compared to the way that , say, Miss Hathaway is treated in The Beverly Hillbillies).  Personality – specifically, the obnoxiousness with which she pursues Dobie, itself a reflection and a tacit critique of Dobie’s girl-craziness – can also be understood as Dobie’s main objection to Zelda.  And of course, Zelda’s desire to remake Dobie into a suitable mate – “I’m going to nag you into being rich and successful and happy, even if it makes you miserable!” – isn’t all that different from the get-rich quick schemes into which Thalia enlists a somewhat more willing Dobie.  If anything, Zelda’s plans for his future are even more explicitly fifties-conformist.  (There’s a hint of the outlaw in Thalia: if Zelda was grooming Dobie to provide for them, Thalia saw him as a tool to provide for her.)  For Shulman, womanhood was a continuum of emasculation.

DobieZelda

Another of the show’s major touchstones was Dobie’s obsessive evocation of girls as “soft and round and pink and creamy” – even when attributed to a gormless adolescent with only a theoretical conception of sex, a rather reductive, slightly creepy and weirdly biological way of thinking about women.  Like Silliphant, Shulman ended up trying to have it both ways: The women in Dobie Gillis were smarter and more assertive than Dobie and Maynard, but their objectification went largely unquestioned (something that was even more true of the lust-object-of-the-week who appeared in many episodes than for the more fleshed-out Zelda and Thalia).  But it would be misguided to offer an ahistorical scolding to Dobie Gillis for its ambivalent sexism, since on the whole (and relative to many more actively misogynistic series of the same period) Shulman’s show comes across as affectionate towards and admiring of women.  One of the reasons that Dobie Gillis delights today is its honesty about Dobie’s lust.  The teens in Father Knows Best, The Donna Reed Show, and even the down-to-earth Leave It to Beaver were asexual, but Dobie was a horny kid, persistent and even compulsive in his pursuit of sex.  Shulman and Hickman always made it clear that this kid would tag as many bases as he could get away with.

DobieThalia

The realism, at least by TV standards, of Dobie Gillis extended into areas beyond sex.  Shulman was also obsessed with money, and not just by way of his gold-digging goddess Thalia.  As a counterpoint to Dobie’s incessant mooching off his parents and Maynard’s infamous phobia for “work!” Shulman crafted an explicit accounting of the middle-class struggle to make ends meet that’s as rare on television now as it was then.  The first season’s wonderfully dyspeptic Christmas episode, “Deck the Halls,” was a marvelous grumble about the travails of the merchant class, in which Herbert’s stingy customers contrive a dozen different ways to nickle-and-dime him into the poor house.

The even more specific “The Magnificent Failure” finds Herbert overvaluing his grocery store by a figure of $29,000; after his bad negotiating torpedoes a buyout deal, he goes in search of a job as a middle manager in a supermarket chain, only to learn the hard way that he’s not considered qualified to work for a big corporation.  The dire economy of Leander Pomfritt (William Schallert), Dobie’s kindly English teacher (and later professor), also came in for scrutiny in a pair of morose episodes that examine, without any comedic exaggeration, the kinds of sacrifices that an educator must make in order to remain in a profession that Shulman clearly thinks of as noble.  Pomfritt has to moonlight in order to make ends meet, a situation that he finds humiliating; and even at the junior college, in theory an advance over teaching at high school, he’s distracted from teaching by a heavy load of crushing administrative duties.

During the first season, Dobie Gillis gradually built up a roster of some of the funniest character actors in the business, most of them recurring in small roles as the Gillises’ neighbors, customers, and civic overlords: Doris Packer, Marjorie Bennett, Jack Albertson, Alan Carney, Joey Faye, Richard Reeves, James Millhollin, Burt Mustin, Milton Frome.  Coupled with Shulman’s penchant for giving his characters long, silly names (Merrilee Maribou! Monty W. Millfloss! Truckhorse Bronkowski!), the populating of Central City with such a rich ensemble of oddballs felt like a conscious imitation of Preston Sturges, especially his small-town send-ups (The Miracle of Morgan’s Creek; Hail the Conquering Hero).

At the same time, Shulman depicted fifties materialism, pop culture, and sex in a heightened tone – no other sitcom of its day did vulgarity as exuberantly as Dobie Gillis.  Dobie’s lust, Thalia’s greed, and Maynard’s beat affectations – not to mention the screeching theme song and the first season’s lecherous animated opening titles – are painted in broad strokes that emulate the wild satires of Frank Tashlin, who was at his peak (with The Girl Can’t Help It and Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?) in the years when Shulman was putting Dobie Gillis together.  Perhaps the best way to characterize the distinctive delights of Dobie Gillis is to suggest that Shulman’s sensibilities represented a synthesis of Sturges’s weirdness and Tashlin’s spikiness – or even that Shulman was consciously imitating both writer-directors.  It’s hard to think of any other important sitcoms that followed in the tradition of either; Green Acres, maybe, had some of Sturges, and The Dick Van Dyke Show a bit of Tashlin, but these seem like incidental similarities compared to the extent that Shulman channelled both.

In the second half of this essay, I consider some of the changes that the very protean Dobie Gillis underwent in its second, third, and fourth seasons.

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19 Responses to “The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis (Part One)”

  1. Don Malcolm Says:

    Terrific stuff, Stephen–particularly strong re: that Sturges connection. I can see Thalia as a sexed-up extension of Emmy Kockenlocker (Diana Lynn) in Miracle of Morgan’s Creek, a precocious girl who knew the score and was, as James Harvey so aptly put it, “very soigneé in bobby socks.”

    Very much looking forward to part two!


  2. Great work, Stephen. The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis remains one of my all-time favorite TV sitcoms, and this essay nails why it was so innovative and distinct. (I particularly enjoyed the background on the show.) Looking forward to reading the second half.

  3. moirafinnie Says:

    “Like many of the television writers of his era, Shulman had a bit of a woman problem; and just as Stirling Silliphant used Route 66, in his own prescient/retrograde way, as a vehicle to work out a horror of and fascination for women’s lib,”

    Oh, ain’t it the truth! Having caught up with all the episodes of Route 66 that I could in the last year on Me-tv, I came to the conclusion that all the women on that show were mad, bad, and dangerous to know.

    As much as I enjoyed your insights into Max Shulman’s point of view and the way that you have avoided measuring his awareness of sexual politics with a modern yardstick, I’m afraid that the plight of Thalia and Zelda have irked me since I first saw this program as a tot.

    I have tried to watch “The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis” several times since hitting my alleged adulthood and, try as I might, the females all seem to be overwrought caricatures to me–except for Dobie’s mother (the lovable Florida Freibus) and Clarice Osborne (the formidable Doris Packer)–both of whom combine good humor, a strong grasp on reality, and understanding of their loved ones’ foibles in their distinctively different ways. They seem more like people than a writer’s mouthpiece–but perhaps that is because of the women who played them. Max Shulman probably meant it both ways when he wrote that “girls who tell the truth are funny,” but women telling the truth are memorable.

    I can’t wait to read your second take on this series and would love if you could include more about Mr. Dyspeptic himself: Herbert T. Gilis aka Frank Faylen

    • Stephen Bowie Says:

      It’s always hard to decide whether to praise writers of that era for creating forceful women characters, or to condemn them for inevitably undermining them. I tend to lean toward the latter, just because it’s a lot better than bland or nonexistent female characters (as you’d get from Serling or Reginald Rose) or overt misogyny (as in, say, the Warner Bros. detective shows or anything Aaron Spelling produced, even as early as the fifties). This was as good as it got, maybe. And I do like both Zelda and Thalia — the performances are so lively that I think both actresses rescue them from the writers’ worst impulses.

      Moira, I’m curious — what female TV characters from the fifties and sixties, if any, do you find most agreeable?

      • Mike from Jersey Says:

        Stephen, Another terrific post by you, the only blogger I have ever cited to my friends.
        You are,in Maynard G.Krebs speak,truely a Great American. Enclosed please find 2 tickets to The Monster That Ate Cleveland, which ran in Dobie’s local bijou for all 4 years of the series run. Mike from Jersey

  4. John DeAngelis Says:

    Nice! My favorite long name was Chatsworth Osborne, Jr. But you have Shulman saying “We were just too little schnooks…” and it should be “We were just TWO little schnooks…”. Still, I’m looking forward to Part Too, er, Two!

  5. Larry Granberry Says:

    Another home run, Stephen. And another series (like “Peyton Place” and “Ben Casey”) I am not very familiar with. Unlike those two, I look forward to catching this one on DVD – I hope you can give a good recommendation to the box set Shout! has released (they didn’t do too well with “Route 66.”)

    • Stephen Bowie Says:

      They’re fine. Old tape masters (likely the same ones that ran on Nick at Nite 25 years ago), but I have a fairly big plasma screen and they looked okay. Certainly no major screw-ups on the order of Route 66 or some of the other off-the-shelf TV releases from Shout Factory.

  6. Cory Franklin Says:

    Stephen:
    An excellent take on one of the best shows of the or any other era.There is an episode where Herbert is supposed to become a lodge executive or something like that and it gets messed up because of Maynard (who wants to go to a Thelonius Monk concert). Dobie delivers one of the greatest meta-speeches in television history, how their situation is not like television because it doesn’t turn out OK, but that people watch television because it’s not like real-life and they want things to turn out OK so…”
    I must point out two minor omissions- among the great character actors you didn’t mention Stephen Franken as Chatsworth (Osborne family motto was Latin for “Never Touch Principal”). He took over the role Warren Beatty started in. Warren obviously didn’t want to be there (altho he did a great Marlin Brando impression in one episode) because he was waiting for his movie career. One of the best lines I ever heard was Dwayne Hickman, when he heard Beatty denied ever being on Dobie, said “If I were Warren I’d cop to being on Dobie and deny being in Ishtar.” Anyway, Stephen Franken was priceless as Chatsworth. Beatty never could have pulled that character off.
    And in terms of character names- Bill Bixby made his debut on the show (as did some other notables) with a different character name but something to do with a Bixby College. but perhaps the best use of a character name in television history was Professor Imogene Burkhart, played by Jean Byron. Of course her stage name was Jean Byron. Her real name was Imogene Burkhart. The episode where she does a South Sea native dance and Mr. Gillis fantasizes about her is another classic in television.

    • Stephen Bowie Says:

      Glad you liked it, Cory. As for omissions, some of those may come up in Part 2 of this piece….

  7. patrickmurtha Says:

    Among the best television series I have ever seen, which I discovered when it was being rerun on Nick at Nite. One of the traits that makes Dobie so appealing, and I imagine you might get into this in Part 2, is his loyalty to Maynard. From a social-climbing and girl-winning standpoint, Maynard could certainly be considered a liability. But while the rich people in the series are constantly seen to treat others instrumentally, Dobie Gillis is too genuine for that. Like him, like his friends – Maynard is non-negotiable. THAT is truly cool. And it underscores the surprising moral theme of the series – the exploration of what is and isn’t acceptable in the struggle to get ahead. i think the show is a sublime example of comedy with depth.

    • Ken Says:

      I am just about to get into the show. I saw a few clips and want to see much more, especially with Bob Denver in a pre-Gilligan role. My impression just from the clip was that the show was surprisingly subversive for its time, or at least as subversive as they could get away with.

      Patrick, I think your insight hits the nail on the head, or at least that’s my guess from the little I’ve seen and read.

  8. Jon Burlingame Says:

    One of my all-time favorite sitcoms, and I believe genuinely subversive for its time. Watching reruns years later, I was amazed that Shulman got away with so much; I kept thinking, didn’t the CBS censors care? Were they paying attention? And can anyone possibly dispute the assertion that Shulman came up with the funniest character names in TV history?

  9. patrickmurtha Says:

    Stephen, have you seen Shulman’s and Amateau’s 1961 pilot “Daddy-O,” with Don DeFore as a reluctant sitcom actor? It’s available at the Internet Archive. Quite interesting, very “meta,” although it is hard to see where they would have gone with it (which may be part of the reason why it wasn’t picked up). For me, the highlight of the show is Lee Philips as the sitcom-within-the sitcom’s producer Albert Shapian, displaying a comic energy that no way would I have guessed at from Philip’s best-known performance as Michael Rossi in the movie version of “Peyton Place.” In “Daddy-O,” it’s as if Philips is channeling the great Lee Tracy. Philips, as you know, would gradually taper off acting and concentrate on his career as a television director.

    • patrickmurtha Says:

      A follow-up note on “Daddy-O”: Darrell Y. Hamamoto includes an extended and insightful treatment of the pilot (and a promotional trailer for the show that I have not seen) in his 1991 book “Nervous Laughter: Television Situation Comedy and LIberal Democratic Ideology.” I was able to access the relevant pages through Google Books.

      • Stephen Bowie Says:

        And to give credit where it’s due, Hamamoto also did a thorough interview with Max Shulman right before Shulman died (published posthumously in the Journal of Popular Film and Television, Winter 1989), from which most of the quotes in this article are taken.

  10. raito Says:

    I think part of the reason that Dobie’s ‘Thinker’ monologues aren’t a fourth-wall problem is that he does them alone (as opposed to the implicit audience in Seinfeld’s stand-up bits). This implies to the viewer that Dobie is in the park, ruminating on his life. And who doesn’t do that when they’re alone? Everyone does, and therefore it gives the audience a connection to him, because he’s doing something that they do.

  11. moirafinnie Says:

    “Moira, I’m curious — what female TV characters from the fifties and sixties, if any, do you find most agreeable?”

    First of all, I should have clarified–Zelda had a certain outsider’s appeal in her character, despite her tendency to want to mold poor Dobie into something more conventional than even she realized, as you pointed out. I can’t help wondering how her character might have turned out later–perhaps the changes that swept through society in the following decade would have led her to a kind of realization about herself, as well as Dobie. Also, compared to other young women portrayed in television of the period (“Princess” and “Kitten” on Father Knows Best, for example), Thalia and Zelda were marvels–blessed with wit, drive and peculiar charms all their own.

    Re: what female characters of the fifties were appealing to me. I haven’t seen everything from the period other than those which have been repeated down the years, but the only two who really stand out in memory for me are:

    “Our Miss Brooks” with Eve Arden:
    Even though she harbored that misbegotten yen for Mr. Boynton and marriage, Eve had a career, a mind of her own, and one of the sharper senses of humor than women normally showed in that period on the tube.

    Ann Sothern in “The Ann Sothern Show”:
    Sothern brought a certain amount of canniness and insight into the people around her in her role as an assistant manager of a hotel–who knows she is bright enough to be running the place.

    I still loved your essay on Dobie and company. Hope you’ll have time to write more soon. Thanks.

  12. Rob Sinclair Says:

    Great article Stephen. I still howl at the episode “Will Success Spoil Dobie’s Mother?”, with Joyce Jameson playing the shallow, self-absorbed, kisses-blowing actress “Merilee Maribou” (I wonder who they were lampooning????). Life pretty much imitated art a year after this episode aired when MM “sang” Happy Birthday to a certain U.S. President.


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